Price stability refers to the maintenance of relatively stable prices over time. This is typically measured by the rate of inflation, which is the percentage change in the general price level of goods and services over a period of time. A low and stable rate of inflation is generally seen as a sign of a healthy and stable economy.
There are several factors that can affect price stability, including the supply and demand for goods and services, the level of economic growth, and the availability of credit. Government policies, such as monetary policy (which is implemented by a central bank to influence the supply of money and credit in the economy) and fiscal policy (which involves government spending and taxation) can also impact price stability.
Price stability is important for a number of reasons. First, stable prices can help businesses and consumers to make more informed and confident purchasing decisions, as they are able to anticipate the future costs of goods and services. Second, stable prices can help to reduce uncertainty and increase predictability in the economy, which can encourage investment and economic growth. Finally, stable prices can help to promote social and economic fairness, as they can reduce the impact of unanticipated price changes on different groups within the population.
In summary, price stability refers to the maintenance of relatively stable prices over time and is typically measured by the rate of inflation. Price stability is important for businesses, consumers, and the overall economy, as it can help to promote informed and confident purchasing decisions, reduce uncertainty and increase predictability, and promote social and economic fairness.
Inflation vs Deflation
Inflation is a sustained increase in general price levels. Deflation is the opposite, a sustained decrease in general price levels. Low levels of inflation or deflation below 2% may be viewed as price stability.
Inflation & Growth
Inflation is often viewed as better for an economy than deflation because a low level of inflation may stimulate economic growth. When prices are always rising a little, people have incentive to invest their money as opposed to saving conservatively. Inflation also encourages consumption because you are less likely to delay purchases when prices are likely to rise.
Deflation & Savings
Deflation benefits people with savings because they do not have to take risks to preserve the value of their money. Deflation encourages people to save because the value of money is always going up as things get cheaper. In this sense, deflation benefits the old as they are more likely to have savings. Inflation may benefit the young as it may stimulate employment.
Price stability is a common goal of monetary policy. However, in practice monetary policy is often aimed at producing mild inflation as opposed to zero inflation. Generally speaking, lower interest rates and more liquidity in a system cause inflation and prevent deflation. Conversely, increased interest rates and less liquidity help to prevent inflation.
An expansionary fiscal policy that involves a government spending more than its tax revenues can contribute to inflation. The opposite effect is a contractionary fiscal policy that involves a government spending less than its tax revenues to pay down debt.
Deflation & Innovation
It is quite common for innovation to reduce prices. For example, an improvement in farming methods may greatly increase the supply of food, driving down prices.
Deflation & Globalization
Globalization can cause deflation as it allows things to be produced at greater scale. For example, it is cheaper for one country to produce 1 billion solar panels than for every country to produce a few million solar panels.
Price Instability & Economic Efficiency
Price instability is a rate of inflation or deflation higher than about 2%. It is possible for both high inflation and deflation to damage the economy of a nation. High inflation encourages hoarding of goods and can lead to a break down in economic efficiency. Likewise, deflation encourages the hoarding of money. This also harms economic efficiency by discouraging spending and investment.