Business Environment

Business Environment

Business Environment Jonathan Poland

The business environment refers to the external factors and conditions that can affect a company’s operations and performance. It includes elements such as the economic climate, political landscape, technological developments, and competitive landscape. The business environment can have both positive and negative impacts on a company, and it is important for businesses to be aware of the various factors that can affect their operations.

The business environment can be divided into three main categories:

  1. Micro environment: This includes factors that are directly related to the company, such as customers, suppliers, shareholders, and employees.
  2. Macro environment: This includes larger, external factors that can affect the company, such as economic conditions, political climate, and technological advancements.
  3. Global environment: This includes factors that have an impact on the company’s operations on a global scale, such as international trade policies, cultural differences, and global economic trends.

It is important for businesses to carefully monitor and analyze the various elements of the business environment in order to anticipate and respond to changes and opportunities. This can help companies to make informed decisions and stay competitive in their market. The following are illustrative examples.

Economic Environment

An economic environment including the interest rates, credit conditions, growth rate, debt levels and price stability of an economy.

Business Cycle

The state of your industry. For example, an industry that is investing in capital and expanding supply versus an industry that is divesting and reducing supply.


The confidence of businesses and consumers. For example, an environment where customers are optimistic about the future such that they are taking out loans, reducing savings and spending.


The competition and their competitive advantages. For example, a small firm entering a market dominated by a large firm with high brand recognition, a large number of loyal customers and a good reputation.

Political Environment

The political environment including the stability of a government and society.

Economic Security

The resilience of the economies in which you operate. For example, a nation that has poor IT infrastructure that is vulnerable to information security risks.


The cultures in which you operate including national cultures, communities, business culture and consumer culture.


The values of the societies in which you operate. For example, a society that demands that firms not damage the environment.


Customers including demand levels, customer needs, preferences and perceptions.


The characteristics of current and future populations. For example, a fashion firm that enters a market with a large number of teenagers and young adults.

Regulations & Taxation

The burdens placed on a business by governments including taxation, administrative burden and regulations.


Access to foreign markets and competition from abroad.


Access to resources. For example, a trade war that threatens to cut off a critical supply.

Productivity & Efficiency

The output you get for each unit of input. Productivity and efficiency rates can differ greatly from one country to the next based on factors such as working culture, infrastructure and access to education.


The characteristics of your markets. For example, a product category that is dominated by a single ecommerce company.


Your network of partners including factors such as partner performance or competition for partnerships. For example, a supply shortage that makes it difficult to secure critical parts.


Changes to business models, technology, values, customer needs, products and competitive capabilities. For example, an energy company that has its business model challenged by a cleaner, less expensive form of energy.


Uncertainty about change. For example, the risk your competition will release a product that is an order of magnitude better than yours.


Your impact on nature and communities. For example, a hotel that owns land that is critical to an endangered species.

Internal Environment

The term business environment is occasionally extended to include the internal environment of a firm such as its strategy, operations and corporate culture.

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