A boat floats due to the principle of buoyancy, which is based on Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes’ principle states that an object submerged in a fluid experiences an upward force called the buoyant force, which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
When a boat is placed on water, it displaces a certain volume of water. The weight of the displaced water pushes upward against the boat, creating a buoyant force. At the same time, the weight of the boat pulls it downward due to gravity. If the buoyant force is equal to or greater than the weight of the boat, the boat will float.
The key to designing a boat that floats is to distribute its weight across a large enough volume so that the buoyant force can counteract the downward force of gravity. This is why boats typically have a hull with a wide and flat bottom, allowing them to displace a large volume of water and generate a sufficient buoyant force to keep the boat afloat. Materials used in boat construction can also play a role in buoyancy, with lightweight materials like aluminum, fiberglass, or even certain types of wood helping to keep the overall weight of the boat down.