Liquidity Risk

Liquidity Risk

Liquidity Risk Jonathan Poland

Liquidity risk is the risk that a financial institution or company will not be able to meet its financial obligations when they are due, either because it is unable to sell assets quickly enough to raise the necessary cash or because there are insufficient buyers for the assets. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including market volatility, changes in regulatory requirements, or a sudden decrease in the value of a company’s assets.

There are several types of liquidity risk, including funding liquidity risk, which is the risk that an institution will not be able to obtain the necessary funding to meet its financial obligations; market liquidity risk, which is the risk that an institution will not be able to sell its assets quickly enough to raise the necessary cash; and funding and market liquidity risk, which is the combination of the two.

To manage liquidity risk, financial institutions and companies can take a number of steps, including maintaining a sufficient level of liquid assets, such as cash and highly liquid securities, to meet short-term obligations; diversifying funding sources; and establishing lines of credit with banks or other financial institutions. They can also use financial instruments, such as repurchase agreements and securities lending, to help manage liquidity in times of stress.

It is important for financial institutions and companies to carefully manage their liquidity risk, as a failure to meet financial obligations can have serious consequences, including bankruptcy, loss of investor confidence, and damage to the company’s reputation. Regulators also pay close attention to liquidity risk, and may require financial institutions to hold certain levels of liquid assets or maintain minimum levels of funding.

In summary, liquidity risk is the risk that a financial institution or company will not be able to meet its financial obligations when they are due, either because it is unable to sell assets quickly enough to raise the necessary cash or because there are insufficient buyers for the assets. It is important to carefully manage liquidity risk to avoid serious consequences and to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. The following are examples of liquidity risk.

Accounts Receivable

An IT consulting firm relies on reasonably timely customer payments in order to meet quarterly cash needs. A dispute with a large customer results in a sudden decline in cash flows and the firm misses a payroll payment. This results in compliance issues, fines and a severe decline in reputation and employee satisfaction.

Bank Deposits

Generally speaking, banks don’t have the cash that would be required if all customers were to withdraw their deposits all at once. If economic conditions cause a large number of withdrawals, banks may require a large amount of cash in a short period of time.

Lines of Credit

In addition to deposits, unused space in lines of credit can quickly drain the liquidity of banks.

Debt Terms

A manufacturing company has a small reserve of cash and a large unused line of credit. The firm experiences a period of rapidly declining prices due to industry oversupply. They quickly run out of cash as their operating margins turn negative. The line of credit becomes unavailable due to their poor financial metrics. The firm starts to miss payments and suppliers stop supplying them with essential inputs. The business goes into a downward spiral and is quickly bankrupt.

Marketable Securities

An investor purchases a low volume small cap stock. The investor suddenly requires cash due to a personal emergency but has trouble selling the stock due to the low volume. The investor must set the price surprisingly low before their order finally fills. This results in a loss. If the investor had owned a high volume stock it could have been sold instantly at a market price with a low bid-ask spread.


An investor who has all of their net worth in real estate generates cash by selling properties on a regular basis at a profit and purchasing new ones. This works for the investor while the market is hot. When market conditions change, houses are difficult to sell and it takes over a year to complete a single sale. The investor is short on cash and must sell a few properties at exceptionally low prices to attract buyers in a down market.

Learn More…

What is Supply? Jonathan Poland

What is Supply?

Supply refers to the amount of a product or service that is…

Management Efficiency Jonathan Poland

Management Efficiency

Management efficiency refers to the ability of a company or organization to…

Problem Management Jonathan Poland

Problem Management

Problem management is an important aspect of IT service management that involves…

Economic Efficiency Jonathan Poland

Economic Efficiency

Economic efficiency refers to the ability of an economy to produce the…

Product Experience Jonathan Poland

Product Experience

Product experience refers to the overall value that a product or service…

Gap Analysis Jonathan Poland

Gap Analysis

A gap analysis is a method used to determine the distance between…

Reputational Risk Jonathan Poland

Reputational Risk

Reputational risk refers to the potential for damage to an organization’s reputation…

Business Risk Jonathan Poland

Business Risk

A business risk is a potential event or situation that could negatively…

Job Titles Jonathan Poland

Job Titles

Job titles are brief labels that are used to describe the duties,…

Jonathan Poland © 2023

Search the Database

Over 1,000 posts on topics ranging from strategy to operations, innovation to finance, technology to risk and much more…

Brand Objectives Jonathan Poland

Brand Objectives

Brand objectives refer to the specific goals that a brand is working…

Division of Labor Jonathan Poland

Division of Labor

The process of dividing work into specific roles, tasks, and steps is…

Solution Selling Jonathan Poland

Solution Selling

Solution selling is a type of sales approach that focuses on offering…

Strategic Partnership Jonathan Poland

Strategic Partnership

A strategic partnership is a relationship between two or more organizations that…

Fiduciary Duty Jonathan Poland

Fiduciary Duty

Fiduciary duty refers to the legal obligation of one party to act…

Automation Jonathan Poland


Automation refers to the use of technology to perform tasks that were…

Human Capital Jonathan Poland

Human Capital

Human capital refers to the future productive potential of people, which is…

Income Statement Jonathan Poland

Income Statement

An income statement is a financial statement that shows a company’s revenues,…

Market Forces Jonathan Poland

Market Forces

The interaction that shapes a market economy. Market forces are the factors…