Market Risk

Market Risk

Market Risk Jonathan Poland

Market risk is the possibility that the value of an investment will decline due to changes in market conditions. This risk is often quantified using a measure called volatility, which estimates the likelihood of price fluctuations based on an investment’s past price movements. Market risk can affect the value of various types of investments, including stocks, bonds, and commodities.

There are several types of market risk that can affect the value of investments:

  1. Interest rate risk: This is the risk that changes in interest rates will impact the value of an investment. For example, if a bond issuer raises interest rates, the value of existing bonds may decline.
  2. Inflation risk: This is the risk that the purchasing power of an investment will be eroded by inflation. For example, if the price of goods and services increases over time, the value of an investment may not keep up with these increases.
  3. Credit risk: This is the risk that a borrower will default on a loan or bond, leading to a loss for the investor.
  4. Currency risk: This is the risk that changes in exchange rates will affect the value of an investment. For example, if the value of a foreign currency declines relative to the investor’s domestic currency, the value of an investment denominated in that foreign currency may also decline.
  5. Political risk: This is the risk that political events or changes in government policy will impact the value of an investment. For example, a change in tax laws or regulations could affect the profitability of a company, leading to a decline in its stock price.
  6. Event risk: This is the risk that a specific event, such as a natural disaster or a company’s earnings announcement, will affect the value of an investment.
  7. Systemic risk: This is the risk that a problem in one part of the financial system, such as a financial crisis, will have broader impacts on the market as a whole.
  8. Volatility risk: This is the risk that an investment’s price will fluctuate significantly over a short period of time. This risk is often measured using the concept of volatility, which estimates the likelihood of price fluctuations based on an investment’s past price movements.
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