First Principles Thinking

First Principles Thinking Jonathan Poland


First principles thinking is a method of reasoning that involves breaking down complex problems into their most basic and fundamental components. Instead of relying on analogies or past experiences, you start from the ground up and build your understanding from the foundational elements. In conclusion, adopting first principles thinking can be transformative for businesses. It promotes a culture of innovation, efficiency, and adaptability, ensuring that companies remain competitive and ahead of the curve in their respective industries.

The process typically involves:

  1. Identifying the Problem: Clearly define the problem you’re trying to solve.
  2. Deconstructing the Problem: Break it down into its most basic elements. Ask yourself: “What are the fundamental truths or principles that are universally applicable here?”
  3. Reconstructing the Problem: Once you’ve identified the basic principles, start reconstructing the problem from the ground up. This often leads to innovative solutions that might not have been apparent if you were relying on conventional wisdom or past experiences.

Benefits for Businesses

  1. Innovation: By breaking down problems to their core, businesses can come up with novel solutions that might not be apparent when relying on conventional methods. This can lead to groundbreaking products, services, or processes.
  2. Avoiding Assumptions: Many businesses operate based on assumptions or “the way things have always been done.” First principles thinking challenges these assumptions, leading to a clearer understanding of the real challenges and opportunities.
  3. Cost Efficiency: By understanding the fundamental components of a problem or process, businesses can often find more efficient and cost-effective ways to operate. For instance, Elon Musk used first principles thinking to drastically reduce the cost of batteries for Tesla cars.
  4. Adaptability: In a rapidly changing business environment, relying on past experiences can sometimes be detrimental. First principles thinking ensures that businesses are always approaching problems with a fresh perspective, making them more adaptable to change.
  5. Clearer Decision Making: By understanding the core principles of a situation, decision-makers can make more informed choices that are aligned with the company’s goals and values.

How to Adopt First Principles Thinking in Business

  1. Encourage Questioning: Foster a culture where employees are encouraged to ask “Why?” and challenge existing assumptions.
  2. Training: Provide training sessions on first principles thinking to equip employees with the tools they need to approach problems in this manner.
  3. Reward Innovation: Recognize and reward employees who come up with novel solutions using first principles thinking.
  4. Iterative Process: Understand that first principles thinking is an iterative process. Encourage teams to continuously refine and improve their solutions.
  5. Cross-functional Collaboration: Encourage teams from different departments to collaborate. Diverse perspectives can help in breaking down problems to their core.

Examples of First Principle Thinking

Here are some real-world examples of first principles thinking. These examples showcase how first principles thinking can lead to innovation and disruption across various industries. By breaking down existing models and reconstructing them from the ground up, companies and individuals can find novel solutions to longstanding problems.

  1. Tesla’s Batteries: Elon Musk wanted to produce electric cars at scale but found batteries to be too expensive. Instead of accepting the market price, he broke down the cost of materials required to make a battery and found a way to produce them more cheaply.
  2. SpaceX Rockets: Instead of buying expensive rockets, Elon Musk’s SpaceX decided to manufacture its rockets, drastically reducing costs.
  3. Airbnb: Instead of accepting the hotel industry’s structure, Airbnb deconstructed the concept of accommodation and built a platform around people renting out their own spaces.
  4. Netflix: Instead of sticking with DVD rentals, Netflix recognized the fundamental principle that people want entertainment on-demand and pivoted to streaming.
  5. Dyson Vacuum Cleaners: James Dyson deconstructed the vacuum cleaner and, after 5,127 prototypes, invented one without a bag, using cyclonic separation.
  6. Amazon’s Business Model: Jeff Bezos broke down the concept of a bookstore and reconstructed it into an online marketplace, eventually expanding to other products.
  7. 3D Printing: Instead of traditional manufacturing methods, 3D printing builds objects layer by layer, fundamentally changing production.
  8. CRISPR: Scientists deconstructed the DNA editing process and developed a more precise and efficient method using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
  9. Uber: Instead of accepting the taxi model, Uber deconstructed transportation and created a platform where anyone could offer a ride.
  10. The Wright Brothers: Instead of copying existing unsuccessful flying machines, they broke down the principles of flight and built their aircraft from scratch.
  11. Digital Cameras: Kodak, despite inventing the digital camera, stuck to film. Other companies recognized the fundamental desire to instantly view pictures and pivoted to digital.
  12. Solar Energy: Instead of relying on traditional energy sources, companies are deconstructing energy production and focusing on harnessing solar power more efficiently.
  13. Ride-sharing e-Scooters/Bikes: Companies like Lime and Bird looked at urban transportation and introduced shared scooters and bikes as a solution to short-distance travel.
  14. Beyond Meat & Impossible Foods: These companies broke down the concept of meat and reconstructed plant-based alternatives that mimic its taste and texture.
  15. Modular Phones: Projects like Google’s Project Ara aimed to deconstruct the smartphone and allow users to customize their devices using modular components.
  16. Flat-packed Furniture (IKEA): Instead of selling pre-assembled furniture, IKEA deconstructed the furniture-selling model to reduce shipping costs and storage space.
  17. Duolingo: Instead of traditional language learning methods, Duolingo broke down the process and gamified it, making it more engaging.
  18. Direct-to-Consumer Brands: Brands like Warby Parker and Casper deconstructed retail and sold directly to consumers, cutting out the middleman.
  19. Farm-to-Table Restaurants: Chefs deconstructed the food supply chain and decided to source ingredients directly from farms.
  20. Raspberry Pi: The creators wanted affordable computing for students. They deconstructed a computer and created a minimal, affordable version.
  21. Vertical Farming: Companies are rethinking agriculture, growing crops vertically indoors to increase yield and reduce resource usage.
  22. Blockchain & Cryptocurrencies: Instead of accepting traditional banking, blockchain technology deconstructed financial transactions, leading to the creation of cryptocurrencies.
  23. Crowdfunding Platforms (Kickstarter, Indiegogo): These platforms broke down the traditional funding model, allowing creators to get funding directly from consumers.
  24. Open Source Software: Instead of proprietary software, the open-source movement deconstructed software creation and distribution, allowing for collaborative development.
  25. Subscription Box Services: Companies like Birchbox and Blue Apron deconstructed retail and shopping habits, offering curated products delivered regularly.

Decision Trees

Decision Trees Jonathan Poland

Decision Trees are a popular machine learning algorithm used for both classification and regression tasks. They are part of a class of algorithms called tree-based methods, which also includes Random Forests, Gradient Boosted Trees, and others. Here’s an overview of Decision Trees and their usefulness:

What is a Decision Tree?

A Decision Tree is a flowchart-like structure where each internal node represents a feature(or attribute), each branch represents a decision rule, and each leaf node represents an outcome. The topmost node in a tree is called the root node. The decision tree makes decisions based on asking a series of questions.

Why are Decision Trees Useful?

a. Simplicity and Interpretability: One of the main advantages of Decision Trees is their simplicity and ease of interpretation. They can be visualized easily, which makes them great for understanding the decision-making process.

b. Non-parametric: They are non-parametric, meaning they make no assumptions about the distribution of the underlying data. This can be useful when the data doesn’t follow a known distribution.

c. Handle both numerical and categorical data: Decision Trees can handle both types of data, making them versatile.

d. Feature Selection: During the training process, higher nodes on a decision tree are essentially features that are more important for prediction. This inherent feature selection can be useful for understanding the critical variables.

e. Requires little data preprocessing: They don’t require feature scaling or centering at all.

f. Can model non-linear relationships: While linear algorithms might fail to capture non-linearities, Decision Trees can capture them.

g. Fast: Decision Trees can be faster than some other algorithms, especially when the depth is limited.

Limitations of Decision Trees:

a. Overfitting: One of the main challenges with Decision Trees is their tendency to overfit, especially when the tree is deep. This means they can perform very well on training data but poorly on unseen data.

b. Instability: Small changes in the data can result in a completely different tree. This can be mitigated by using ensemble methods like Random Forests.

c. Biased to dominant classes: Decision Trees can be biased if one class dominates. It’s often a good idea to balance the dataset before creating the tree.

d. Not always optimal: The greedy nature of the algorithm (making the best split at the current step rather than looking ahead for a better split) means it doesn’t always produce the most optimal tree.


Decision Trees are a versatile and interpretable machine learning algorithm. While they have their limitations, they can be powerful, especially when combined with other methods or used as part of ensemble methods. They have found a wide range of applications in business development due to their interpretability, versatility, and ability to handle complex datasets. Here’s how they are used in the context of business development:

Customer Segmentation:

Decision Trees can help businesses segment their customer base into distinct categories based on purchasing behavior, demographics, or other attributes. This segmentation can inform targeted marketing campaigns, product development, or personalized service offerings.

Lead Scoring:

Sales teams can use Decision Trees to prioritize leads based on the likelihood of conversion. By analyzing historical sales data, Decision Trees can identify patterns that indicate which leads are most likely to convert into customers.

Risk Management:

Businesses can use Decision Trees to assess the potential risks associated with new ventures, projects, or investments. By inputting various scenarios or conditions into the tree, businesses can visualize potential outcomes and make informed decisions.

Product Development:

Decision Trees can be used to understand customer preferences and needs. By analyzing feedback and usage data, businesses can identify which features or product attributes are most valued by their customers.

Operational Efficiency:

Decision Trees can help in optimizing business operations. For instance, they can be used to streamline supply chain processes by identifying key factors that impact delivery times or product quality.

Strategic Decision Making:

When faced with multiple strategic options, businesses can use Decision Trees to visualize the potential outcomes, benefits, and risks associated with each choice. This can help in making more informed strategic decisions.

Churn Prediction:

Decision Trees can analyze customer data to identify patterns or behaviors that indicate a customer is likely to stop using a company’s product or service. By identifying these patterns early, businesses can take proactive measures to retain these customers.

Pricing Strategy:

By analyzing customer sensitivity to price changes, Decision Trees can help businesses determine optimal pricing strategies for their products or services.

Market Entry Analysis:

When considering entering a new market, Decision Trees can help businesses evaluate the potential challenges, competitors, and market dynamics they might face.

Fraud Detection:

Especially in sectors like finance and e-commerce, Decision Trees can be used to detect unusual patterns or behaviors that might indicate fraudulent activity.

In essence, Decision Trees provide a visual and structured way to analyze complex business scenarios, making them invaluable for business development. Their ability to break down intricate problems into understandable and actionable insights allows businesses to make data-driven decisions that drive growth and innovation.

More Examples

Here are a dozen other applications of Decision Trees in business, along with reasons for their specific use in each scenario:

Credit Approval:

  • Purpose: Financial institutions use Decision Trees to evaluate the creditworthiness of loan applicants.
  • Why: Decision Trees can analyze multiple factors like income, employment history, and credit score to predict the likelihood of default.

Inventory Management:

  • Purpose: To optimize stock levels and reduce holding costs.
  • Why: Decision Trees can factor in sales trends, seasonal variations, and supplier reliability to make stocking decisions.

Real Estate Valuation:

  • Purpose: To estimate property values.
  • Why: By considering attributes like location, size, and amenities, Decision Trees can predict property prices.

Recommendation Systems:

  • Purpose: E-commerce platforms use them to recommend products to users.
  • Why: Decision Trees analyze past purchase history and browsing behavior to suggest relevant products.

Human Resources (HR) Decisions:

  • Purpose: To aid in hiring, promotions, and talent retention.
  • Why: Decision Trees can assess factors like performance metrics, experience, and skills to make HR decisions.

Budget Allocation:

  • Purpose: To determine how to allocate budgets across various departments or projects.
  • Why: Decision Trees can weigh the potential ROI, risks, and strategic importance of different initiatives.

Sales Forecasting:

  • Purpose: To predict future sales.
  • Why: By analyzing historical sales data and market trends, Decision Trees can forecast sales for upcoming periods.

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) Prediction:

  • Purpose: To estimate the total revenue a business can expect from a customer over the course of their relationship.
  • Why: Decision Trees consider purchase frequency, average order value, and retention rate to calculate CLV.

Campaign Effectiveness:

  • Purpose: To evaluate the success of marketing campaigns.
  • Why: Decision Trees can analyze metrics like conversion rate, customer engagement, and sales to gauge campaign performance.

Supply Chain Optimization:

  • Purpose: To streamline supply chain processes.
  • Why: Decision Trees can evaluate factors like supplier performance, transportation costs, and demand fluctuations to optimize the supply chain.

Maintenance Scheduling:

  • Purpose: To plan maintenance activities for equipment or infrastructure.
  • Why: Decision Trees can predict when maintenance is likely needed based on usage patterns and historical breakdown data.

Loyalty Program Design:

  • Purpose: To design customer loyalty programs.
  • Why: By analyzing customer preferences and purchasing behavior, Decision Trees can help design loyalty programs that maximize customer retention and spending.

In each of these applications, the primary advantage of Decision Trees is their ability to handle complex datasets and provide clear, interpretable decision-making pathways. This transparency allows businesses to understand the rationale behind predictions or decisions, making them more actionable and trustworthy.

For Business Leaders

Business leaders, whether they are owners, executives, or managers, often face complex decision-making scenarios. Decision Trees can be invaluable tools for these leaders, aiding them in making informed, data-driven decisions. Here’s how a business leader might use Decision Trees:

Strategic Planning:

  • How: By visualizing potential outcomes of various strategic initiatives, leaders can assess the risks and benefits associated with each option.
  • Example: An executive deciding whether to expand into a new market can use a Decision Tree to weigh factors like potential market size, competition, and entry barriers.

Resource Allocation:

  • How: Leaders can use Decision Trees to determine the best way to allocate resources, such as budget, manpower, or time.
  • Example: A manager deciding how to allocate the annual marketing budget across various campaigns can use a Decision Tree to evaluate the potential ROI of each campaign.

Risk Management:

  • How: Decision Trees can help leaders identify and evaluate potential risks in various business scenarios.
  • Example: Before launching a new product, an owner can use a Decision Tree to assess potential challenges like production issues, market reception, or regulatory hurdles.

Operational Decisions:

  • How: Leaders can use Decision Trees to optimize day-to-day operations.
  • Example: A warehouse manager can use a Decision Tree to determine the optimal stocking levels based on factors like demand forecasts, supplier reliability, and storage costs.

Talent Management:

  • How: Decision Trees can assist in making HR-related decisions, such as hiring, promotions, or training.
  • Example: An HR executive can use a Decision Tree to evaluate potential candidates based on factors like experience, skills, cultural fit, and potential for growth.

Problem Solving:

  • How: When faced with a problem, leaders can use Decision Trees to break down the issue into smaller components and evaluate potential solutions.
  • Example: If a company is facing declining sales, a manager can use a Decision Tree to analyze potential causes (e.g., product quality, marketing effectiveness, competition) and devise appropriate strategies.

Negotiations and Deals:

  • How: Leaders can use Decision Trees to prepare for negotiations by evaluating potential outcomes and responses.
  • Example: An executive negotiating a merger can use a Decision Tree to anticipate the other party’s demands and prepare counteroffers.

Performance Analysis:

  • How: By analyzing performance metrics through Decision Trees, leaders can identify areas of improvement.
  • Example: A sales manager can use a Decision Tree to determine which factors (e.g., training, territory, incentives) most influence a salesperson’s performance.

Stakeholder Communication:

  • How: Decision Trees can be used as visual aids to explain decisions or strategies to stakeholders, such as board members, investors, or employees.
  • Example: An owner can use a Decision Tree to illustrate to investors why a particular strategic direction was chosen.

Continuous Learning:

  • How: After decisions are made, leaders can revisit Decision Trees to assess the accuracy of predictions and refine the decision-making process.
  • Example: After a product launch, an executive can compare actual market reception to predictions made using the Decision Tree and adjust future strategies accordingly.

For business leaders, the primary value of Decision Trees lies in their ability to provide clarity in complex scenarios. They offer a structured way to evaluate multiple variables and outcomes, making the decision-making process more transparent and rational.

Practical Thinking

Practical Thinking Jonathan Poland

Practical thinking is a type of thinking that focuses on finding timely and reasonable solutions to problems. This type of thinking is characterized by a focus on the real-world consequences of different actions and decisions, and on finding solutions that are feasible and effective in the short-term. In contrast, other types of thinking may be overly complex, slow, inflexible, or focused on theoretical or ideological considerations, rather than on practical concerns.

Practical thinking is an important skill in a wide range of fields, including business, engineering, and public policy. In business, for example, practical thinking can help managers and leaders make effective decisions that are grounded in reality and that take into account the needs and constraints of their organizations. In engineering, practical thinking can help designers and developers create solutions that are both technically sound and feasible to implement. And in public policy, practical thinking can help policymakers identify and implement solutions to complex social and economic problems.

To develop practical thinking skills, it can be helpful to approach problems with a focus on the concrete and specific, rather than on abstract or theoretical considerations. This can involve asking questions about the real-world implications of different actions, and about the feasibility and effectiveness of potential solutions. It can also involve seeking feedback and input from others who have relevant expertise or experience. By engaging in this type of thinking, individuals can improve their ability to identify and implement practical solutions to a wide range of problems.

Here are a few examples of how practical thinking might be used in a business environment:

  1. A company is struggling to meet its sales targets. Rather than implementing a complex and time-consuming new sales strategy, a practical thinker might identify small, actionable steps that the company can take to improve its sales performance, such as offering promotions or training its sales team on new techniques.
  2. A business is facing increased competition from new, innovative products. A practical thinker might identify ways that the business can adapt to these changes and maintain its competitive advantage, such as by developing new features or services that meet changing customer needs.
  3. A company is looking to expand into a new market. Rather than conducting a lengthy and expensive market research study, a practical thinker might identify smaller, more targeted ways of gathering information about the new market, such as by talking to customers or industry experts, or by analyzing competitors’ products and pricing.

Cognitive Abilities

Cognitive Abilities Jonathan Poland

Cognitive abilities refer to the mental processes that allow individuals to acquire, retain, and use knowledge. They are foundational types of thinking. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive abilities are essential for many everyday activities, such as learning, communicating, and adapting to new situations.

Cognitive abilities develop and change throughout an individual’s life. Early childhood experiences, such as interacting with parents and caregivers and being exposed to different environments and stimuli, can have a significant impact on cognitive development. As individuals grow and age, their cognitive abilities can be affected by factors such as genetics, health, education, and experience.

Cognitive abilities can be assessed through a variety of methods, such as standardized tests, interviews, and behavioral observations. These assessments can provide valuable information about an individual’s cognitive abilities and can be used to diagnose cognitive disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions, and inform career and development planning. Overall, cognitive abilities play a crucial role in an individual’s ability to function and thrive in the world. Continued research and understanding of these abilities can help us better support and enhance cognitive development in individuals of all ages. Here are some examples…


Thinking that is logical such as inference, deduction and abduction.

Rational Thought

Thinking that is reasonable but not necessarily fully logical. This can include consideration of human factors such as emotion, culture, social intelligence and morals. For example, a decision to forgive someone based on a moral principle.


Working memory and long term memory. For example, a stock trader who is able to accurately hold dozens of numbers in their head as they execute a few trades.

Learning & Development

The ability to develop usable memories and cognitive talents. For example, a young child who learns to read in multiple languages.

Inhibitory Control

The ability to suppress impulsive responses based on instinct, emotion, motivation and habit. Humans have significant capacity to do this to arrive at rational alternatives to impulsive behavior that may be suboptimal or socially unacceptable.

Attentional Control

Focusing on something and ignoring distractions. For example, an accountant who can accurately perform a reconciliation of accounts in a crowded night club.

Cognitive Flexibility

Cognitive flexibility is the ability to think about different things at the same time without losing track. For example, a young video gamer who can track the movements of dozens of foes who have surrounded them to develop tactics that may change several times a second. This might be performed while negotiating with a parent who is insisting it is dinner time.


Identifying a series of steps that can be taken to reach an objective. For example, a university student who plans how to convince a professor to extend a deadline.

Problem Solving

A type of planning that solves a problem. For example, a student who comes up with a study plan to improve their results in a subject they are failing.

Design Thinking

Solving problems with a process of synthesis whereby you design and create things. For example, a manager who corrects the poor performance of an employee by carefully crafting new objectives for them and continually evaluating them against these targets.

Decision Making

An element of planning that identifies and evaluates options to choose one such as a flight director at a space agency who decides to abort a launch due to weather.

Systems Thinking

Systems thinking is the ability to identify the end-to-end impact of change to systems. Anything that is extremely complex can be considered a system. For example, a mayor who considers the possible unintended consequences of a new bylaw.

Critical Thinking

A vague and overused term that implies that thinking is systematic. For example, a student who is able to read a book and identify its main arguments in order to evaluate those arguments in an essay.

Analytical Thinking

The process of breaking a problem down to understand its parts. For example, mapping out a business process to identify the concrete and measurable reasons that employees feel it is inefficient.

Dealing With Ambiguity

Applying rational thought to situations where much isn’t known such as a camper who is able to ascertain that sounds in the forest are from a single animal no larger than a badger.


The process of developing reasonable predictions about unknowns or the future.

Verbal Reasoning

Thinking in words including the internal dialogue that may people describe as their primary thinking process.

Visual Thinking

The process of thinking with pictures such as a diagram. This includes the ability to visualize things with the mind.

Challenging Assumptions

Intellectual bravery whereby you are willing to challenge the things that people hold to be true. This can include the ability to challenge your own assumptions.

Convergent Thinking

The ability to solve a problem with a known correct answer such as a math problem.

Divergent Thinking

Divergent thinking is the ability to solve a problem with an open-ended answer such as a design for a new product. Convergent and divergent thinking are complimentary and are both important to rational thought.

Spatial Reasoning

The ability to think about 3d space. This can include both convergent and divergent thinking. For example, a mover who can tell you exactly how large a truck you will need to move a particular house full of furniture or an architect who can design attractive interior and exterior spaces.

Social Cognition

The human mind appears to be highly adapted to understanding other human beings. For example, the ability to predict what others will do or see how they feel.

Emotional Intelligence

Recognizing and using emotion such as a customer service representative who is able to solve a customer’s problem at the emotional level in addition to the technical level. For example, being able to win back a customer who feels they have been disrespected by your firm.

Fluid Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is the ability to respond intelligently to novel situations. For example, a gamer who is able to fight with an alien they’ve never encountered before that has strange powers.

Crystallized Intelligence

Cognitive abilities that rely on knowledge and experience. Most human talents fall into this category. For example, an artist who has become great at what they do after years of experimenting and perfecting their work.

Abstract Thinking

Abstract thinking is the ability to use concepts that differ from concrete reality. Language is mostly abstract concepts with familiar words such as education, freedom or cause all being completely abstract.


Intuition is knowledge that originates outside of conscious thought. For example, a fashion designer with a strong sense of what will sell who appears to make instantaneous decisions that are remarkably accurate.


Wit is the ability to respond to social situations in some intelligent way at high speed.

Situational Awareness

The process of understanding fast moving situations. Relies on high speed unconscious processes such as salience and intuition.

Kinesthetic Intelligence

Cognitive abilities related to the body such as balance, coordination and physical accuracy.


Imagination is the ability to think of things beyond direct reality. Essential to strategy, creativity, decision making and problem solving.


The ability to shape motivation and purpose in some reasonable way. For example, an student who is able to build up motivation to become a chef based on a desire for creative expression.


Awareness of the self including physical, emotional, motivational and cognitive characteristics. For example, an individual who knows how they would be likely to act in a fictional situation.


Introspection is the ability to examine your own thinking, emotions, habits, motivations and character to improve.


The ability to deploy different modes of thinking and thinking strategies to handle different situations. For example, a senior manager with high amounts of crystallized intelligence who knows when to stay open minded and how to continue to learn.

Cognitive Skills

The following is a list of 50+ skills.

Abductive Reasoning Abstract Thinking
Analogical Reasoning Analysis
Attentional Control Attribution
Category Formation Cognitive Flexibility
Composition Conjecture
Convergent Thinking Counterfactual Thinking
Creativity Critical Thinking
Crystallized Intelligence Dealing With Ambiguity
Decision Making Deductive Reasoning
Design Thinking Divergent Thinking
Emotional Intelligence Fluid Intelligence
Imagination Improvising
Inference Inhibitory Control
Introspection Intuition
Judgment Kinesthetic Intelligence
Learning Linguistic Intelligence
Logic Memory
Objectivity Pattern Recognition
Perception Planning
Problem Solving Rational Thought
Reasoning Reflective Thinking
Salience Self-Awareness
Situational Awareness Social Cognition
Spatial Reasoning Strategy
Systems Thinking Tactics
Verbal Reasoning Visual Thinking
Wit Working Memory


Capitalism Jonathan Poland

Capitalism is an economic system based on the principles of economic freedom, private ownership, and the creation of wealth through the pursuit of profit. In a capitalist system, individuals and businesses have the right to own and control their own property, and to use that property to create wealth. This can include starting and running businesses, investing in stocks and other financial assets, and buying and selling goods and services.

Under capitalism, the market is the primary mechanism for coordinating the economy. Prices, supply and demand, and competition are all determined by the forces of the market, rather than by government intervention. This allows for the efficient allocation of resources and the creation of wealth, but it also means that capitalism can be subject to boom and bust cycles and other market failures.

While capitalism has been successful in creating wealth and economic growth, it has also been criticized for its potential to create inequality and social injustice. Critics of capitalism argue that it is a system that primarily benefits the wealthy and powerful, and that it can lead to exploitation and oppression of the poor and marginalized. Despite these criticisms, capitalism remains the dominant economic system in many parts of the world. The following are some concepts within capitalism.

Overwhelming Dominance

Any nation that produces most of its GDP with the profit motive and competitive markets can be viewed as capitalist. In this context, most nations, including former communist and socialist states such as China and Vietnam, are capitalist. There are degrees of capitalism as some industries are still nationalized in some nations. However, capitalism produces most global GDP and is the defacto economic system of most nations.

Private Property

Capitalism is based on property rights whereby if you build something, you can own it, sell it, use it and so forth. Under capitalism, the government doesn’t own and control industries but rather lets them emerge with the ambition and needs of the people.

Profit Motive

Capitalism produces significant productivity, growth and innovation as property rights allow people to profit from value creation. This is known as the profit motive and doesn’t exist in a system of forced sameness whereby outcomes are guaranteed to be the same regardless of contribution or results.

Competitive Markets

A market is a system where agents freely compete to close translations. For example, a market for goods or a market for labor. These generate competition that improves things. For example, a competitive labor market rewards those who acquire the talents, knowledge and skills needed by businesses.

Anti-competitive Practices

Pure capitalism, known as laissez-faire capitalism, is a system where governments don’t interfere in the economy in any way. This doesn’t exist at any scale and probably can’t exist at any scale because without government regulations and enforcement, a monopoly would quickly emerge that would resemble a communist government in that it would eventually control all capital. As such, capitalism can only exist where governments prevent anti-competitive practices that would eventually destroy competitive markets.

Social Classes

Capitalism is based on keeping the value that you can capture or create. Without this, the profit motive doesn’t exist and it’s not capitalism. As such, capitalism inherently leads to social classes such as the upper class, middle class and working class. Governments in developed nations commonly use taxation and limited income redistribution to reduce or prevent poverty.

Social Market Economy

Currently, all developed nations are some variant of a social market economy whereby capitalism is the primary economic system that generates income and wealth but taxation is used to provide some level of redistribution of income, often in the form of free public services such as education. Social market economies should not be confused with socialism as they are capitalist systems that simply use taxation to provide government services and entitlements. Socialism on the other hand, implies that a nation attempts to own and control all or most industries.


Capitalism is based on free and open competition. As such, those who produce and capture the most value can end up with a large share of the world’s resources. In practice, most capitalist societies are social market economies that use taxation to redistribute some of this wealth with public services such as education, healthcare and basic income. However, it is common for the wealthy to use aggressive tax structures and strategy to avoid taxes resulting in a high tax burden for the middle class and less resources for those in need.


As capitalism efficiently produces products and services that people want, it is often blamed for social ills related to greed, materialism and consumerism. For example, some feel that capitalism convinces people to be greedy and materialistic with mechanisms such as advertising. It could be argued that as an economic system capitalism fulfills its role of producing goods and it is culture that shapes behavior.


Commoditization is the process by which things that were once viewed as unique become viewed as indistinguishable parts. For example, the commoditization of labor is the process by which firms begin to view workers as interchangeable. This begins with an education system that produces standard skills as opposed to unique humans with special talents.


Under capitalism, firms compete to grow market share. With time these firms can control markets such that competition ceases to exist. When this occurs, customers have no alternatives such that prices rise, quality declines and the firm may impose unfair terms on customers. In order to preserve capitalism, governments may break up firms that control markets. Otherwise, capitalism would begin to resemble socialism whereby a single entity controls all capital.


A monopsony is a large firm that is the only customer for a product or service. This also applies to firms that are the only employer in a particular geographical area or profession. For example, a town that only has a single employer such that the employer can drive down wages and impose poor working conditions as workers have no alternatives. Socialism makes this problem worse by imposing state control of all employment.

Anti-Competitive Practices

Many of the problems with capitalism have to do with anti-competitive practices whereby firms prevent fair competition. For example, a firm that controls what software may be installed on a large number of mobile devices thus preventing open competition for games and other apps†.

Undermining Democracy

Capitalist interests that work to undermine the power of people to shape their own societies. For example, global agreements and backroom deals that have governments ban traditional farming practices in order to push the interests of large agrochemical and biotechnology firms††.

Rent Seeking

Rent seeking is a behavior that seeks to capture value without creating value. For example, an individual who buys medical supplies in the midst of a shortage to resell them at a higher price online.

Crony Capitalism

Crony capitalism is undue influence over a government exercised by firms. Capitalism works when the government serves as a balance to the excesses of firms by regulating and taxing them. Crony capitalism subverts this and allows firms to profit at the expense of the public. For example, a government that conducts spending programs not aimed at improving anything for the people but rather aimed at assigning contracts to friends of the government.

Economic Bads

Economic bads are negative results of the production of economic goods. In many cases, nobody pays the costs of economic bads such as air pollution that damages quality of life. For example, a factory may produce widgets worth $8 that each create $42 in environmental damage. This could be addressed with markets for economic bads whereby producers and consumers pay to damage the environment with total damage capped at a sustainable level. However, these markets are currently missing.

What is a Capitalist?

What is a Capitalist? Jonathan Poland

A capitalist is an individual who supports or practices capitalism, which is an economic system based on the principles of economic freedom, private ownership, and the creation of wealth through the pursuit of profit. In the broadest sense, a capitalist is someone who believes that capitalism is a good and desirable system. In its most specific sense, a capitalist is someone who actively engages in capitalist activities, such as starting or investing in businesses, in order to generate wealth.

Capitalism is based on the idea that individuals have the right to own and control their own property, and to use that property to create wealth. Capitalists believe that this system allows for the most efficient and productive use of resources, and that it encourages innovation, creativity, and economic growth.

While capitalism has been successful in creating wealth and economic growth, it has also been criticized for its potential to create inequality and social injustice. Critics of capitalism argue that it is a system that primarily benefits the wealthy and powerful, and that it can lead to exploitation and oppression of the poor and marginalized. Despite these criticisms, capitalism remains the dominant economic system in many parts of the world.

Almost all countries currently employ some version of capitalism with a handful of exceptions such as North Korea. Countries such as Sweden are often mis-portrayed as socialist when in fact they are social market economies, a type of capitalism. Here are some common examples of capitalists.

Family Business

A family business that puts capital such as money, equipment, buildings and land to work to create value. For example, a farmer who puts land and equipment to work to create food. A farmer may also employ others.

Small Business

Individuals who put their own money into a business to generate value from capital and employ people. For example, a restaurant owner.


Small businesses that don’t have much capital such that they mostly offer their labor.


Individuals who create new industries, business models, products, services or ways of doing things. This can be a self-funded small business or a startup that receives funding from venture capitalists.

Venture Capitalists

Investors that fund entrepreneurial ventures known as startups.


Institutions such as banks and individuals that lend money to businesses without taking any ownership interest in the business.


Individuals who put their money to work in businesses that they may or may not control, direct or influence.


Individuals who own a large portion of a business such that they have accountability for it.

Board of Directors

The individuals who are accountable for a large business.

Executive Management

The individuals who are responsible for a large business.

Captains of Industry

Individuals who are very wealthy and active in an industry such that they have a large impact on society.


An individual who owns or controls a monopoly that has little or no real competition for their major products and services.

Crony Capitalist

A capitalist who influences a government in a way that benefits them personally. Politicians and government employees who engage in this can also be referred to as crony capitalists.

Good Business

A business that honestly pursues three goals: people, planet and profits as opposed to profits alone. This can be imposed on capitalists with regulations or markets for economic bads.

Rationalism vs Empiricism

Rationalism vs Empiricism Jonathan Poland

Rationalism and empiricism are two philosophical approaches to understanding the world and acquiring knowledge. While they share some similarities, they also have some important differences.

Rationalism is the philosophy that knowledge comes from the use of reason and logic. According to rationalists, the human mind is capable of generating knowledge on its own, without relying on sensory experience. In other words, rationalists believe that knowledge can be obtained through abstract thought and reasoning, without the need for sensory evidence.

Empiricism, on the other hand, is the philosophy that knowledge comes from sensory experience. Empiricists believe that knowledge is derived from observing and studying the world around us, rather than from abstract thought and reasoning. They argue that the senses are the primary source of knowledge, and that we can only truly know something if we have direct sensory evidence for it.

One key difference between these two approaches is their emphasis on the role of experience in acquiring knowledge. Rationalists place more emphasis on the power of the mind to generate knowledge, while empiricists place more emphasis on the role of sensory experience in acquiring knowledge.

Another important difference is their view of the nature of knowledge. Rationalists tend to believe that knowledge is certain and universal, while empiricists tend to believe that knowledge is always provisional and subject to revision based on new evidence.

Overall, while rationalism and empiricism are two different philosophical approaches to knowledge, they both have contributed to our understanding of the world and the way we acquire knowledge.


Both rationalism and empiricism seek robust evidence for knowledge and are used by science and other disciplines to discover what can reasonably be viewed as fact. Rationalism seeks observation and measurement where it is possible but is willing to go beyond this to develop theories and laws that are difficult to directly confirm with the senses.


In practice, both rationalism and empiricism play a complementary role. For example, a physicist may develop a model of the relationship between space and time using a thought experiment. With peer review and validation this may eventually be viewed by rationalists as a well-accepted theory. Many decades later, this theory may be confirmed with empirical evidence. It is unlikely such a theory could be developed without a thought experiment as it is a leap forward in thinking that is not obvious from the numbers. As such, many theories that are now accepted by empiricists were first identified by rationalists. Generally speaking, rationalism is a far more powerful tool of discovery and empiricism plays a role in creating greater certainty that knowledge is indeed correct.

Hypothetical Example

Imagine that you are a scientist who has been studying the effects of a new medication on the brain. You have conducted several experiments and observed that the medication appears to improve memory and cognitive function in mice. Based on these observations, you formulate the hypothesis that the medication will have the same effects in humans.

To test this hypothesis, you conduct a clinical trial in which a group of volunteers with age-related memory loss are given the medication and a control group is given a placebo. Over the course of several weeks, you measure the cognitive function of both groups and compare the results.

If the results of the clinical trial support your hypothesis, then you can conclude that the medication is likely to improve memory and cognitive function in humans. However, if the results do not support your hypothesis, then you must revise your hypothesis or conduct further research to better understand the effects of the medication.

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